Overview Potassium sorbate is one of the most wide used food preservatives in the world. The others food preservatives are sodium benzoate, lactic acid and calcium propionate. Potassium sorbate market volume is increasing at a CAGR of 4.3% in 2016. With its stability, safety and efficiency, potassium sorbate is most used in food & beverage. It includes canned foods, wine, dairy, ect. Potassium sorbate is also used in pharmaceutical products, personal care and industrial usage. Potassium sorbate is one of the safest synthetic preservative in theworld. Potassium sorbate is the potassium salt of sorbic acid. In the human body, potassium sorbate can be decomposed into carbon dioxide and water, and be excreted. Its toxicity is only 1/40 traditional preservative, sodium benzoate. Import & export Profile HS: 291619-Unsaturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids, their anhydrides, halides, peroxides, peroxyacids and their derivatives. Source: Globalwits (2016) Sorbic acid and its potassium salt are carbon-oxygen linear structure. The HS code of them is 291619. According to HS 291619(Un Comtrade), China is the top 1 exporter in the world. The export volume of China is 4.86 times higher than the second exporter, Indonesia. From the above figures, we can find that USA is the top 1 importer of HS 291619 from China, taking 24.2% of whole Chinese export volume, followed by the Brazil with 7.5% and Germany with 5.7%. Taken individually, USA is importing most potassium sorbate from China in 2016. Source: Globalwits (2016) China is the biggest potassium sorbate export country in the world. The production capacity of sorbic acid and potassium sorbate in China reaches 165.5 thousand tonnes in 2016. Ningbo Wanglong, Jinneng, Nantong Acetic Acid are the top 3 manufacturers in China, which take up 82.9% of Chinese sorbic acid and potassium sorbate production. Chinese Potassium Sorbate market price tendency The Chinese FOB price of potassium sorbate has kept decreasing from Aug. 2016 to Mar. 2017. The reason is the oversupply of potassium sorbate. In 2016, the production of potassium sorbate in China has taken up 86.2% of world production. Owing to the limited production of Wanglong Group, which is the largest supplier of potassium sorbate in China, the price of it reached a peak in Apr. 2017. The latest news in Chinese potassium sorbate market is that Wanglong has limited its production because of environmental protection policy in early June. Wanglong is the biggest sorbic acid and potassium sorbate manufacturer in China, accounting for 25.5% of Chinese sorbic acid and potassium sorbate production(2016). OKCHEM is an innovative, professional, and reliable chemical B2B platform, dedicated to providing convenient and safe chemical trade and one-stop solution to chemical suppliers and buyers globally, and increasing the value of international chemical trade. View more reports: Sucralose | Global Imp & Exp China Vital Wheat Gluten Export Analysis Report I
What is amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium? Amoxicillin clavulanate is a compound preparation consisting of 0.5 gram amoxicillin and 0.125 gram clavulanic potassium per tablet. Amoxicillin is one of the most commonly used semi-synthetic penicillin-based and broad spectrum beta-lactamase antibiotics which often comes in the form of white powder with a half-life of about 61.3 minutes. It is stable under acidic conditions with the gastrointestinal absorption rate of 90%. Amoxicillin has a strong bactericidal function and a powerful ability to penetrate the cell membrane, so it is one of the most widely used synthetic penicillin. The preparation can come in the forms of capsules, tablets, granules, dispersible tablets,etc and now it is often used with clavulanate potassium to make dispersible tablets . Clavulanate potassium is a kind of white or yellowish crystalline powder with a slight odor and strong moisture absorption which is easy to dissolve in water, soluble in methanol, slightly soluble in ethanol and insoluble in ether. It is ineffective when used alone and often used in combination with penicillin drugs for microbial drug resistance and improve the efficacy. Amoxicillin clavulanate potassium is an oval-shaped film-coated tablet with a recessed 'AC' and a scribe line on one side and a smooth finish on the other side. It is white after removing the coating. What is amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets used for? Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium can be used twice a day for short-term treatment of the following infections Upper respiratory tract infection such as: tonsillitis, sinusitis, otitis media. Lower respiratory tract infections such as: acute and chronic bronchitis, lobar pneumonia and bronchial pneumonia. Reproductive urinary tract infections such as: cystitis, urethritis, pyelonephritis. Skin and soft tissue infections: boils, abscesses, cellulitis, traumatic infections. Bone and joint infection: osteomyelitis. Other infections such as: infective abortion, pelvic infection and abdominal infection. What side effects does amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium have? 1, Gastrointestinal reaction such as diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. 2, Rashes, especially for people withinfectious mononucleosis 3, Visible allergic shock, drug fever and asthma. 4, Occasional elevated serum transaminase, eosinophilia, leukopenia and secondary infection caused by Candida or drug-resistant bacteria. Precautions for use amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium is a penicillin antibiotic, so a skin test is necessary before use. This product has antibacterial effect on Gram-positive bacteria such as meningococcus, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Bacillus, Clostridium, Digestive Streptococcus, Streptococcus, Streptococcus, etc. But Cassilin is mainly used for anti-Gram-negative bacteria, so this product is generally not used for the simple infection caused by these bacteria. Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium usage and dosage Adults: for pneumonia and other moderate severe infections, take oneoral dose of 625mg (including amoxicillin 500mg) every 8 hours for 7 to 10 days; for general infections, take one oral dose of 375mg (including amoxicillin 250mg) every 8 hours for 7 to 10 days. Children: ① newborns and infants within three months take amoxicillin 15mg/kg every 12 hours; ②kids under 40kg, take amoxicillin 25mg/kg every 12 hours or amoxicillin 20mg/kg every 8 hours for general infections, and amoxicillin 45mg/kg every 12 hours or 40mg/kg every 8 hours for heavy infections for 7 to 10 days depending on the severity; take half dose for other infections; ③ children above 40kg can take the dosage as adults. Patients with impaired renal function: no need to reduce dosage if the creatinine clearance rate is larger than 30ml/min; if the creatinine clearance rate is between 10 and 30ml/min, take amoxicillin 250 to 500mg every 12 hours; if the rate is less than 10ml/min take amoxicillin 250 to 500mg every 24 hours. Hemodialysis patients: take amoxicillin 250 to 500mg every 24 hours depending on the severity and take an additional dosage during and at the end of the the hemodialysis process.
What is Potassium Metaphosphate Potassium metaphosphate, also called potassium polymetaphosphate or potassium polyphosphate, is a compound of several phosphates and appears as colorless and odorless crystals or powder. It is derived from monopotassium phosphate and could slowly dissolve in water. In food industry, it often used as fatter emulsifier, humectant, sequestrant, texturizer, thickener and texture modifier mainly in seafood flavors. Food Application of Potassium Metaphosphate It is a gluten free additive that adds sour taste to processed food. It could stabilize, thicken and regulate the acidity and moisture in foods, therefore it often used in soft and alcoholic drinks, fresh and canned meats, process meats like sausages and ham, dried vegetables, chewing gum, chocolate products, cereals, candies, dairy products and baked goods. Basically, potassium could be find in almost all food, especially in meat products. Side Effect of Potassium Metaphosphate In general, potassium metaphosphate is safe for most people within approriate amount. However, it could be absorbed by the body quicker than those naturally found in foods, therefore, people with kidney disease who need to control the phosphate level might want to be more careful and get doctor’s suggestion before choosing the food or supplements containing potassium metaphosphate. What worth people’s attention is that too much phosphorus intake could increase the probabilities of heart disease and morality, even in people who have normal kidney function. Please follow okchem.com for more information and supplies of food industry. Related Articles: E412: Guar Gum Food Additive- OKCHEM E418: Gellan Gum Food Additive- OKCHEM
Potassium sorbate is a white salt that primarily used as a food preservative with E number 202. Its chemical formula of E202 food additive is CH3CH=CH−CH=CH−CO2K and can easily dissolve in water and alcohol. Preservative E202 can inhibit the activity of dehydrogenase in mold cells, and combine with sulfhydryl base in enzyme system, thus destroy many important enzyme systems and achieve the purpose of preservation and bacteriostatic action. Uses of E202 Potassium Sorbate Potassium sorbate in foods can inhibit molds and yeasts, as well as used as non nutritional sweeteners to meet the special needs of certain patients. It has a wide range of uses in food, beverages, pickles, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, agricultural products, feed and other industries. Because of its preservative, safety, stability and the improvement of the sensory properties of food, potassium sorbate is a kind of food preservative widely used in developed countries. Potassium sorbate can extend the retention period if added to wine beverages, soda beverages, fresh orange juice and other beverages in proper proportions. This preservative can be directly added to flour or pasta. It is dissolved in water or milk before adding to flour or dough. It would be better to use a small amount of vinegar to make the material acidified in advance when sorbic acid and potassium salt are used in starch products. Sorbic acid and potassium salt can be used in hard cheese, cheese powder, salted cheese, fresh cheese, emulsified cheese, prepackaged cheese and other food as preservative. There are three ways to use preservative E202: potassium sorbate is added to the salt solution and cheese is made from this salt solution; soak or spray the potassium sorbate solution before the cheese is sold; soak or sprinkle cheese with a sorbic acid solution containing a certain amount of alcohol. Besides, it is used in many personal-care products, and many manufacturers are using this preservative as a replacement of benzoic acid. Side Effects of E202 Preservative Under some conditions, especially at high concentrations or when combined with nitrites, food additive E202 has shown genotoxic activity in vitro. To some extent, it inhibits skeletal development and could endanger kidneys and livers if it excesses the certain amount or with long-term taking. Its bacteriostatic effect is 5~10 times higher than that of the traditional sodium benzoate. Also, its toxicity is only 1/5 of that of sodium benzoate, 1/2 of salt. It will not destroy the original color, aroma, taste and nutrition of the food. This preservative can be absorbed by the body's metabolic system and quickly decomposed into carbon dioxide and water. There is no residue in human's body. As long as not exceeding the limit requirements, it is very safe. Related Articles Uses and safety of phosphoric acid EFSA: Sucralose Has No Risk of Cancer
Ammonium persulfate (APS), a white crystalline solid is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2S2O8. It is highly soluble in water, much more so than the related potassium salt. It is a strong oxidizing agent that is used as a bleaching agent and as a food preservative, also acts as a polymerization initiator in polymer chemistry, as an etchant and cleaner in the manufacture of printed circuit boards, as a booster in hair bleaching formulations in cosmetics and as a polymerization initiator, in soil stabilization and as a gel breaker in enhanced oil recovery systems. Ammonium persulfate is relatively easy and safe to handle. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel has reviewed the use of ammonium persulfate and other persulfates as oxidizing agents in hair colourants and lighteners and has deemed them safe for brief discontinuous use followed by thorough rinsing from the hair and skin. However, it has stated that manufacturers of these products should be aware of the potential for urticarial reactions at concentrations greater than 17.5%. In a small study of hairdressers, occupational asthma (OA) was found in 51.1% and allergic occupational dermatitis in 36.2% of study participants. Ammonium persulfate was the responsible agent in 87.5% of OA cases. The average overall duration of exposure in the group of hairdressers with OA was 7 years and the average time from start of exposure to onset of symptoms was 5.3 years. Whilst just over 30% had a family history of allergic disease, none of the patients had previous occupations with possible risk factors for asthma, rhinitis, or dermatitis prior to the becoming hairdressers. Ammonium persulfate is approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a multipurpose food additive in concentrations less than 0.075%. Although it has been approved for this use in the United States it is currently banned in the European Union, Australia and New Zealand as it has been found to cause contact urticaria in bakers. Generally ammonium persulfate is safe to use but some people may have an acute allergic reaction. Immediate urticaria after inhalation or contact appears to occur mainly in patients with a history of asthma. It is also evident from the study of hairdressers that repeated exposure may result in increased sensitivity to the substance, and that allergic reactions may not become apparent until after many years of exposure.
What Is Ascorbic Acid Ascorbic acid, also known as Vitamin C, is a water-soluble vitamin, meaning that your body does not store it. You have to get it from food and beverages. It is essential for growth, healthy teeth, gums, bones, skin and blood vessels and aiding the absorption of iron. Ascorbic acid is found naturally in many fresh fruits and vegetables. Ascorbic acid and its sodium, potassium, and calcium salts are commonly used as antioxidant food additives. These compounds are water soluble and thus can't protect fats from oxidation: for this purpose, the fat-soluble esters of ascorbic acid with long-chain fatty acids (ascorbyl palmitate or ascorbyl stearate) can be used as food antioxidants. Which Foods Contain Ascorbic Acid Dietary sources of vitamin C include many fruits and vegetables. Sources with the most vitamin C are fresh, raw cantaloupes, citrus fruits, kiwis, mangos, papayas, pineapples, strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, watermelon and cranberries, according to National Institutes of Health (NIH). Red and green peppers, spinach, cabbage, cauliflower, turnip greens and other leafy greens, tomatoes, potatoes, broccoli, winter squash and Brussels sprouts are other good sources of vitamin C. Benefits of Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) We need vitamin C for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of the body. It helps the body make collagen, an important protein used to make skin, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels. Vitamin C is needed for healing wounds, and for repairing and maintaining bones and teeth. It also helps the body absorb iron from nonheme sources. As a food additive, ascorbic acid is widely used in food and beverage industry. You can find it in butter, frozen egg products, powdered and concentrated milk, frozen croquette potatoes, tinned baby foods and wine. It can also be added to products that may lose their vitamin C in processing - such as dried potatoes. It is also used as an antioxidant in the brewing industry where it improves the shelf life of beers and prevents haze development, a preservative in the meat industry where it helps maintain colour, an improving agent in the baking industry and also for inhibiting discolouration in cut fruits, fruit pulp and juices. 5 Facts about Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) 1. Vitamin C is sensitive to light, air, and heat, so you'll get the most vitamin C if you eat fruits and vegetables raw or lightly cooked. 2. Tablets, capsules, and chewables are probably the most popular forms, but vitamin C also comes in powdered crystalline, effervescent, and liquid forms. 3. Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin, meaning that your body doesn't store it. You have to get it from food everyday. 4. Ascorbic acid is considered safe, with a very low incidence of allergic reactions or other adverse effects. 5. Vitamin C acts as an antioxidant, which means it keeps foods from reacting with oxygen when they're exposed to air.