Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is an ambiphilic bile acid. It is the taurine conjugate form of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Humans are found to have trace amounts of TUDCA. However, bears contain large amounts of TUDCA in their bile; UDCA and conjugates comprise about 47% of the bile in American black bears and up to 76% in Asiatic bears.
TUDCA has been used in ancient Asian pharmacopoeias for its supposed beneficial effects. UDCA is produced in several countries for the treatment of gallstones and liver cirrhosis. It is not approved by the Food and Dru-g Administration, in the U.S. while UDCA is approved in the United States for the treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis Ongoing research is finding
TUDCA has diminishing apoptotic effects, helping with cardiac function, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's Disease, and stroke.Recently, TUDCA has been found to have protective effects in the eye, especially concerning retinal degenerative disorders.
TUDCA has significant protective properties for many organs throughout the human body.It protects skeletal muscles and other organs, particularly the liver, by increasing insulin sensitivity to appropriate levels.TUDCA has shown to do this by protecting endoplasm reticulum from stress.
Insulin resistance plays a large part in health issues related to excess fat.TUDCA is used for many liver healing and immune-improving purposes, and also is used to support a healthy gallbladder.
This dietary supplement may have some powerful neuroprotective properties, and is indicated in the protection of cells from destruction.To protect cells, TUDCA modulates certain cell cycle effector genes.While these signaling pathways have been identified, the full role of TUDCA in cell maintenance is not yet fully understood.
By protecting cells from destruction, TUDCA has proven to be effective in helping eye's maintain cones and rods.This photoreceptor protection can go a long way in promoting healthy vision. TUDCA is also linked to increased antioxidant activity.
|Appearance||White or off-white crystalline powder||White crystalline powder|
|Solubility||Freely soluble in Methanol|
Sparingly soluble in water.
Practically insoluble in ethyl
acetate and acetone.
|Specific optical rotation||+45.0° ~ +47.0°||+46.1°|
|Sulphate Ash||≤0.1 %||0.04 %|
|Taurine||≤ 0.2%||Not detected|
|Ursodeoxycholic Acid||≤ 0.5%||< 0.5%|
|Total unspecified impurities||≤ 0.5%||Not detected|
|Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid||≤ 1.0%||0.02%|
|Any other impurity||≤ 0.1 %||0.04%|
|Total unspecified impurities||≤ 0.5%||0.05%|
|Heavy metal||≤ 20 ppm||< 20ppm|
|Acetone||≤ 5000ppm||2.9 ppm|
|Ethyl acetate||≤ 5000ppm||Not detected|
|Total plate count||≤ 1000 CFU/g||<10 CFU/g|
|Yeast and mold||≤ 100 CFU/g||<10 CFU/g|