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Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium

clock2017-09-15

 

What is amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium?

 

Amoxicillin clavulanate is a compound preparation consisting of 0.5 gram amoxicillin and 0.125 gram clavulanic potassium per tablet.

 

Amoxicillin is one of the most commonly used semi-synthetic penicillin-based and broad spectrum beta-lactamase antibiotics which often comes in the form of white powder with a half-life of about 61.3 minutes. It is stable under acidic conditions with the gastrointestinal  absorption rate of 90%. Amoxicillin has a strong bactericidal function and a powerful ability to penetrate the cell membrane, so it is one of the most widely used synthetic penicillin. The preparation can come in the forms of capsules, tablets, granules, dispersible tablets,etc and now it is often used with clavulanate potassium to make dispersible tablets .

 

Clavulanate potassium is a kind of white or yellowish crystalline powder with a slight odor and strong moisture absorption which is easy to dissolve in water, soluble in methanol, slightly soluble in ethanol and insoluble in ether. It is ineffective when used alone and often used in combination with penicillin drugs for microbial drug resistance and improve the efficacy.

 

Amoxicillin clavulanate potassium is an oval-shaped film-coated tablet with a recessed 'AC' and a scribe line on one side and a smooth finish on the other side. It is white after removing the coating.

 

 

What is amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets used for?

 

Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium can be used twice a day for short-term treatment of the following infections

 

Upper respiratory tract infection such as: tonsillitis, sinusitis, otitis media.

 

Lower respiratory tract infections such as: acute and chronic bronchitis, lobar pneumonia and bronchial pneumonia.

 

Reproductive urinary tract infections such as: cystitis, urethritis, pyelonephritis.

 

Skin and soft tissue infections: boils, abscesses, cellulitis, traumatic infections.

 

Bone and joint infection: osteomyelitis.

 

Other infections such as: infective abortion, pelvic infection and abdominal infection.

 

 

What side effects does amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium have?

 

1, Gastrointestinal reaction such as diarrhea, nausea and vomiting.

 

2, Rashes, especially for people withinfectious mononucleosis

 

3, Visible allergic shock, drug fever and asthma.

 

4, Occasional elevated serum transaminase, eosinophilia, leukopenia and secondary infection caused by Candida or drug-resistant bacteria.

 

 

Precautions for use amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium

 

Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium is a penicillin antibiotic, so a skin test is necessary before use. This product has antibacterial effect on Gram-positive bacteria such as meningococcus, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Bacillus, Clostridium, Digestive Streptococcus, Streptococcus, Streptococcus, etc. But Cassilin is mainly used for anti-Gram-negative bacteria, so this product is generally not used for the simple infection caused by these bacteria.

 

 

Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium usage and dosage

 

  1. Adults: for pneumonia and other moderate severe infections, take oneoral dose of 625mg (including amoxicillin 500mg) every 8 hours for 7 to 10 days; for general infections, take one oral dose of 375mg (including amoxicillin 250mg) every 8 hours for 7 to 10 days.

 

  1. Children: ① newborns and infants within three months take amoxicillin 15mg/kg every 12 hours; ②kids under 40kg, take amoxicillin 25mg/kg every 12 hours or amoxicillin 20mg/kg every 8 hours for general infections, and amoxicillin 45mg/kg every 12 hours or 40mg/kg every 8 hours for heavy infections for 7 to 10 days depending on the severity; take half dose for other infections; ③ children above 40kg can take the dosage as adults.

 

  1. Patients with impaired renal function: no need to reduce dosage if the creatinine clearance rate is larger than 30ml/min; if the creatinine clearance rate is between 10 and 30ml/min, take amoxicillin 250 to 500mg every 12 hours; if the rate is less than 10ml/min take amoxicillin 250 to 500mg every 24 hours.

 

  1. Hemodialysis patients: take amoxicillin 250 to 500mg every 24 hours depending on the severity and take an additional dosage during and at the end of the the hemodialysis process.

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