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Alkali Metals Periodic Table and Properties of Alkali Metals

clock2017-09-15

 

What is the periodic table?

The periodic table of chemical elements is a list of chemical elements sorted by atomic order from small to large, and by means of some arrangement, elements of similar chemical properties are in the same column. It's a very useful framework for the analysis of chemical behavior because it's able to accurately predict the characteristics of various elements and the relationship between them.

 

What is the alkali metal periodic table?

An alkali metal is a metal element in the group one on the periodic table of chemical elements. It includes: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), cesium (Cs) and francium (Fr). In the outer electrons of the alkali metal's nuclear, the outermost electrons are electrons of an S orbit, so this column belongs to the S region of the periodic table. Alkali metals exhibit a conspicuous behavior in chemical properties and are the best examples of elemental cycles.

 

alkali metal periodic table

Picture from online-sciences

 

What are the properties of alkali metals?

Due to its strong radioactivity, the chemical properties exhibited by francium are very limited, so its' chemical properties have not been studied in depth. The study of the chemical properties of alkali metal elements is mainly for the first five elements of this family. And hydrogen, although belonging to group one, but the chemical properties of it and alkali are quite different, so it is usually not considered to be alkali metal.

It's known that alkali metal elements are active metals. In nature, alkali metal is only found in the salt, never in the form of simple form. Thus, the alkali metal is usually stored in mineral oil or kerosene to prevent reaction with air or water. The alkali metal itself is a silver-white metal with a small density, low melting point and boiling point. It has a high reactivity under the standard conditions and it's easy to lose valence electrons to form a positively charged cation. With soft texture, it can be cut by a knife easily. When the section is exposed to the air and oxygen, the reaction will start quickly and fades.

Alkali metal reacts with halogen to form a haloid, in the form of the white iron in the crystal which can be dissolved in water except lithium fluoride. Alkali metal reacts with water to form a strong alkaline hydroxide solution which should be kept properly. The larger the atomic number is, the more intense the reaction will be.

All alkali metals are found in nature. According to the order of abundance of chemical elements, the highest one is sodium, followed by potassium, lithium, rubidium, cesium, and finally francium. By the way, francium exists in trace substance in nature.

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