Coagulants and flocculant's are formulated to assist in the solids/liquid separation of suspended particles in solution. Such particles are characteristically very small and the suspended stability of such particles (colloidal complex) is due to both their small size and to the electrical charge between particles. Conditioning a solution to promote the removal of suspended particles requires chemical coagulation and/or flocculation.
A corrosion inhibitor is a chemical compound that, when added to a liquid or gas, decreases the corrosion rate of a material, typically a metal or an alloy. The effectiveness of a corrosion inhibitor depends on fluid composition, quantity of water, and flow regime. The nature of the corrosive inhibitor depends on (i) the material being protected, which are most commonly metal objects, and (ii) on the corrosive agent(s) to be neutralized. Corrosion inhibitors are commonly added to coolants, fuels, hydraulic fluids, boiler water, engine oil, and many other fluids used in industry.
The term incrustation inhibitor is used to refer to a chemical that stops or interferes with inorganic scale nucleation, precipitation and adherence to production conduit, completion system or processing facilities, the three key elements susceptible to scale problems. Incrustation inhibitor performance is impacted by the pH, temperature, calcium and magnesium ion levels, and the presence of other chemicals (e.g. corrosion inhibitor) in the scaling brine mixtures. Incrustation inhibitor chemicals may be continuously injected through a downhole injection point in the completion, or periodic squeeze treatments may be undertaken to place the inhibitor in the reservoir matrix for subsequent commingling with produced fluids.
Cleaning agents are substances (usually liquids, powders, sprays, or granules) used to remove dirt, including dust, stains, bad smells, and clutter on surfaces. Purposes of cleaning agents include health, beauty, removing offensive odor, and avoiding the spread of dirt and contaminants to oneself and others. Some cleaning agents can kill bacteria and clean at the same time. Cleaning agents are normally water solutions that might be acidic, alkaline, or neutral, depending on the use. Cleaning agents may also be solvent-based or solvent-containing and are then called degreasers.
Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill fungi or fungal spores. Fungicides are used both in agriculture and to fight fungal infections in animals. Fungicides can either be contact, translaminar or systemic. Contact fungicides are not taken up into the plant tissue and protect only the plant where the spray is deposited. Translaminar fungicides redistribute the fungicide from the upper, sprayed leaf surface to the lower, unsprayed surface. Systemic fungicides are taken up and redistributed through the xylem vessels.