Film-forming Substances is a substance capable of forming a film upon application to a solid surface; the main component of paints and varnishes. The products most commonly used as film-forming materials include reactive (irreversible) oligomers such as alkyd, phenol-formaldehyde, epoxy, and polyester resins, as well as some non-reactive (reversible) polymers of relatively low molecular weight, among them chlorinated polyvinyl chloride resins, polyacrylates, and cellulose nitrates. Natural film-forming materials, particularly vegetable oils and rosin derivatives, still retain some importance in the paint and varnish industry. Film-forming materials are most often used in the form of solutions in organic solvents (sometimes aqueous solutions or dispersions) and are applied by various methods.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence, phosphorescence, and other forms of luminescence, in which a material emits light. It is preparations in a solid form, chiefly employed by painters, for imitating particular colours, and imparting them to the surface of bodies. Pigments are obtained from animal, vegetable, and mineral substances.
Coating additives are special additives that are added to the paint and/or coating to enhance its performance and quality. Although used in very small quantities, additives can have a huge impact on coating performance and application properties. Used in the right order, at the right time, and at the right levels, additives can help improve the appearance and durability of a coating, the flow of paints and inks, the efficiency of the manufacturing process, and even the sustainability of formulations.
In paints, solvents dissolve or disperse different components used in the paint formulation (such as pigment and resin), making paint the desired consistency for application. Once paint is applied, the solvent evaporates, allowing resin and pigment to produce a film of paint (a coat) and dry rapidly. The use of solvents in paints provides a variety of effective choices among durable and decorative coatings and glossy paints for indoor and outdoor uses.