Povidone iodine is an unstable complex formed from the complexation of iodine with a surfactant, belonging to a type of topical iodine disinfectant. At room temperature, it is yellow-brown to red-brown amorphous powder which is soluble in water or ethanol but insoluble in ether or chloroform. Thevinyl-2-pyrrolidone homopolymer inside it is a kind of surfactants which can facilitate the wetting and penetration of solution on the object, thereby enhancing the sterilization effect of iodine. Of which 80 to 90% of the binding iodine can be depolymerization into free iodine with a large the concentration and a strong bactericidal capability. It is tasteless, non-irritating, non-allergenic, and of low toxicity. It is a kind of broad-spectrum fungicide which can kill viruses, bacteria, spores, fungi, and protozoa.
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